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Galvanic current is used to create two significant reaction in esthetics : Chemical (Disincrustation)and ionic (Iontophoresis)DEFINATION-IONTOPHORESIS- GK=(Introduction of ions)is defined as the introduction , by means of an electric current , of soluble salts in to body tissues for therapeutic purposes.Skin type--All skin types depending on substance used-Dry dehydrated skin-Dull sallow skinPROCEDURE—1.Ensure machine is in good working order and on a stable trolley.2. Remove jewelry from patient and self.3. Cleanse patients face and neck thoroughly and check for contraindication.4. Explain routine procedure to patient and reassure about any sensation i.e. pricking metallic taste , and slight warmth.5. Place inactive electrode in patient s hand.6. Remove substance in to bowl and with help of brush apply on patient's face and work round with one active roller electrode.7. Place active electrode on patients forehead and another at base of neck. Check intensity dial at zero. Make sure that the polarity switch is at negative. Switch on the machine and turn up the intensity dial gradually until patient feels pricking sensation.8. For 2 mins, taking care not to lose contact with the skin and avoid over stimulation of an area.9. After 2 mins switch off machine , turn intensity dial to zero and remove the active electrode from the skin.10. Turn polarity switch to positive. Place the active electrode on electrode on forehead and the base of neck, and switch on machine and turn up the intensity dial as before. Move the electrode for another 8 mins, slowly over the face and neck.11. Switch off the machine, turn off intensity and remove electrodes.12. Tone and moisturize face , or blot and continue with other treatments.13. No make up is to be worn for at least 2 hours or if possible for the rest of the day. If possible, for the rest of the day. If make up is necessary, then apply medicated foundation and then the rest of the make-up.14. Positive polarity is for penetration. Negative polarity is for opening up. So in cases of acne, boils , pustules , give 8 min negative.For pigmentation , dryness , whitening, fairness give 8 mins positive.DURATION—2-3 mins( negative) and 6-8 mins(positive)INTENSITY—2-3 miliampsBENEFITS-CHEMICAL EFFECTS –When the active electrode becomes +ve it attracts the –ve chloride ion.This produces a chemical reaction whereby chloride ions react with hydrogen ions to form hydrochloric acid.This hydrochloric acid restores the acid mantle.PHYSICAL EFFECTS—-Restores acid mantle.-Contracts skin tissue-Tightness pores .-Reduces vascularity.-Overall refining of skin condition due to its astringent effect.EFFECTS OF IONTOPHORESIS-1. Beneficial substances for correcting different skin problems are penetrated into skin.2. Opens the pores.3. Stimulates circulations.4. Generally improves texture and tone of skin.IONTOPHORESIS IS SUITABLE FOR-1. All skin types depending on substance used.2. The contents of substances are specialized which are beneficial , pure, water soluble for various skin problems.EXAMPLES:1. Retinoic acidAcne (0.05%)Acne scarsPigmentationFine linesDark circles2. Glycolic acid(6%, 12%)PigmentationFine linesOily skin3. Kojic acid (2%) and VIT-C for periorbital melanosis.4. Aloe + Vit E for dry and dehydrated skinSeaweed jellyPositive galvanic gelAloe vera gelContraindication1 Hyper- sensitive skin, loss of skin Sensation2 Excessive filling, metal pins, plates, coils3 Epileptics4 Diabetes5 Patient with pacemaker6 Pregnancy7 Skin diseases, infection, sepsis8 Cuts, abrasion, inflammations9 Highly strung and nervous client10 Highly Vascular skin11 Defective circulationPRECAUTION FOR IONTOPHORESIS1 Check for Contraindications2 Ensure machine is in good working order3 Remove jewellary from clients and self4 Explain to client about sensations which she will be feeling5 Place correct Electrode on client’s face6 Select correct polarity7 Time treatment correctly8 Do not remove electrode from skin when machine is still on9 Avoid over stimulation of any one part of the skin10 Try not to touch patient during treatment as the currently may be earthed by you .11 Ensure machine is placed is safely on a stable trolley.DisincrustationsIt is used to facilitate deep pore cleansing , to emulsify sebum, remove surface oiliness, Blockage and help to regulate secreation. During this process galvanic current is used to create a chemical reaction that emulsifies or liquefies sebum and debris.When conducting disincrustation , the client holds the positive electrode, the positive polarity. The therapist uses the negative electrode (negative polarity) on the client’s skin surface. This creates a chemical reaction that transforms the sebum present in the skin into soap. When the electrical current interacts with the salts in the skin, it creates the chemical sodium hydroxide i.e this soapy substance helps dissolve excess oil, clogged pores, comedones and other debris on the skin, while softening it at same timeSkin typeOily skin Acne Prone skinCombination skinPost-acne scarsProducts-Saline solutionDisincrustation lotionNegative galvanic gelDuration-6-8 min (Negative ) and 2-3 min (positive)Intensity-2-3 miliampsProcedure-Ensure that machine is in good working order and placed on a stable trolley.Remove all jewellery from client and selfCleanse clients face and neck thoroughly and check for any contraindications.Explain and reassure client of routine procedure, sensation(prickling and warmth ) she may feelCarry out the thermal and skin sensitivity test on face.-apply some petroleum jelly around the eyes-apply the product with the help of mask brush-give the client the bar electrode (with a damp cotton tissue wrapped around it) to hold . this is anode.Make contact with the negative roller/cathode(covered with damp cotton) on the skin and turn up the currently gradually until the client feels a tingling sensation.The movement should start from the chin and move towards the sides in overlapping strokes.Use slow, even, rhythmic movements all over the face.Continue for 6-8 minLower the intensity and switch off the machineRemove the product and proceed with extractions.Reverse polarity for 2 min and then switch off the machine.BenefitsChemical effects-When sodium chloride is dissolved in water, it produces sodium ions and chlorides ions.The active electrode which is – vely charged , attracts +vely sodium ions.This produces a chemical reaction forming NAoH, which is an alkaline that destroys the acid mantle on the face and emulsifies the sebum on the skin surface. It also neutralizes the sebum.Physical effects-Destroy acid mantle.Soften skin tissue.Open pores.Emulsifies sebum and therefore aiding flow and drawing out impuritiesIncrease vascularity i.e produces erythema y the stimulation action of current. Therefore increases blood circulation, which nourishes the tissues and improves lymph drainage, which aids removal of waste products.Overall improvements of skin condition due to its deep cleansing action.
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3 Reasons To Vaccinate Against HPVTip ImageHPV refers to Human Papillomavirus. This is a common virus, which has got more than 100 different types and over 40 of these types are transmitted sexually. This virus may cause cervical cancer and cases of genital warts. It is likely to occur in people who are sexually active to contract genital HPV, and it is not accompanied by any signs or symptoms. The virus is transmitted via skin to skin contact and is severely infectious in nature. Using condoms may reduce the risk of spreading of this virus, but is not always successful.There are two major vaccines for HPV.Gardasil: This vaccine prevents the most common HPVs which are associated with genital and anal cancer, and also warts of both genital and anal type.Cervarix: This type of vaccine prevents HPV associated with the occurrence of cervical cancer.Reasons for vaccination against HPVHPV vaccines are recommended to girls between 11 and 12 years. It is also given to girls and women between the age of 13 and 26 years, who have never been vaccinated against HPC before. These vaccines should be given to females before they start being active sexually and get exposed to the HPV virus. Sexually active females benefit from these vaccines as well, but the effect is less.Here are three reasons why you should vaccinate against HPV:All types of HPV vaccine help in the elimination of the viruses which cause cervical cancer. Viruses causing cancer in the vulva, vagina or anus are also targeted by these HPV vaccines. The HPV vaccines also protect against genital or anal warts. HPV vaccines work effectively in the prevention of cancers caused by HPC viruses and also curb the common health problems which are accompanied.The effect of HPV vaccines is quite long lasting in an individual who is vaccinated against HPV. Usually it lasts for ten years or more without having any related disorders or cancers. The protection does not weaken over time and remains stable.HPV vaccines are licensed by the FDA to be completely safe and efficient to use. Extensive studies have been carried out globally, and no safety concerns have ever arisen. The side effects of HPV vaccines are usually quite mild. However, a little amount of pain, dizziness and nausea are involved.HPV vaccines are a series of effective vaccines, which prevent the occurrence of cervical cancer and other cancers which are sexually transmitted. They are generally given to women before getting sexually active to prevent transmission of HPV viruses. Some HPV vaccines are prescribed to males as well. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
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First Night FailureFirst night failureIntroductionThe first night or honeymoon night of marriage traditionally means the first sexual encounter for an Indian couple. It is the moment when society legally permits the consummation of the union of man with women. The first night is the most awaited night in one's life.Unfortunately, as sexologists, we come across a large number of clients failing on their night. The first-night failure' often results in sexual dysfunctions, social maladjustments, marital disharmony and even divorce.Why failure?The first night has been given special importance from ancient days. Our Sanskrit literature gives detailed descriptions and exotic fantasies woven around the first night. In the kumar saum bhava, Kalidasa takes liberty in describing the love dalliance of the newly wedded shiv and uma.Our cinema has glorified the first night. The entry of the bridegroom in the decorated bedroom, flower bedecked beds, the bride, veil, glass of milk, sweets and the magic moment begins! today, a large number of novels in vernacular languages are available under erotic titles glamourising the sexual raptures of the first night. So the first night become the most special night of a young couple's life i. E the golden night'. In our culture, till today in many parts of india, adolescent boys and girls are not allowed to interact with each other socially (except in some tribal societies) once the girls attains puberty. Marriages are fixing by elders. There is hardly any change of courting. The first night in reality becomes the first encounter' to know each other. Some young individuals are scared to death about their performance on the first night. Their fear is doubled by misguiding friends, yellow books, white self-advertised pamphlets by quacks and blue films. They have a feeling of sexual inadequacy, 'kamjori' or believe that they have become impotent and life has come to an end.One of the most worrying question on a man's mind whether on the first night' he will succeed in breaking the virginal seal' with bang, as this is supposed to make a successful marriage. Because of this fear, many eligible bachelors avoid marriage. Sometime they end up buying so called sex tonic advertised in lay press or even rejuvenators even prescribed by consultants. To avoid first night' failures some of them even visit prostitutes to test their potency! a women enter into the first night with anxiety, tension, fear and a variety of other emotions. The greatest worry on the mind of the bride is how she will fare in the virginity test'.Virginity is considered a virtue. It is a sign of purity. In some societies, the couple is expected to show the bed cover stained with blood after first night as proof of virginity!Thus, the bedroom, instead of being the foundation for developing tenderness, care, warmth, affection, life long love, pleasure bond, trust, intimacy and relationship, turns into a laboratory for testing potency and virginity.The west got the honeymoon problem i. E. First night failures. One dose not even find a mention of first night failure in any standard text book of sexual medicine or in diagnostic and statistical manual (dsm-iv)Western viewsDr wadell b pomeroy, co-author of the kinsey's report, describes premarital intercourse as a training ground for marriage. Lessons learnt without feeling of guilt and fear and the knowledge of good techniques, go a long way in developing relationship. Urge to have intercourse is like any other urges, e. G. Playing tennis, swimming or dancing, riding a horse or doing anything which gives pleasure. Premarital intercourse, unlike masturbation, is a means of interaction with another human being and consequently is a means of learning how to live with people. Sometime, it is learnt too late after marriage that they are not suited to each other sexually.PrevalenceThe first night' performance as still an important event in one's life. Failure can lead to disaster!It is difficult to statistically because of want of actual reporting and documentation. One can say 20% to 30% of couples who seek sex therapy have failure on their first night or at the time of first sexual contact.AetiologyThe sexual behavior in a human being is the outcome of learning and conditioning sex being considered a taboo, there is hardly any opportunity for learning. Therefore, ignorance, myths, and misconceptions about sex prevail. The most common etiology factor for first night failure in marriage is ignorance about male and female anatomy and facts of sex act. Some couples have unrealistic expectations of sex act.Other cause of first night failure is tight foreskin in male, tough hymen in female and dyspareunia, etcFirst-night blues1 psychologicalInadequate sexual informationRestrictive upbringingA. Sex is dirtyB. Women who enjoy sex are disreputableGuiltSexual mythsFear of pain, failure, not satisfying partnerFear of std/HIV/aids2 organicDysfunction in the partner e. G. VaginismusTight foreskinIf failure occurs on the first attempt, the first thing comes in mind am I impotent?' the more he tries. The more he fails. He feels something is terribly wrong with him. He feels that due to his past habit of masturbation, he has lost his vitality, vigour, and potency. He stops further sexual advances. It starts a vicious cycle of performance anxiety and spectatoring' and failure.Consequences They may avoid sexual activity. They may continue to have only foreplay. They may have good relationship in other aspects of life. Some may suffer from anxiety/depression. Impotency They may make allegations at each other leading to marital conflicts, separation or divorce
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Myths & MisconceptionsMYTHS & MISCONCEPTIONSCausesSexuality is related to obscenity or vulgarity. Therefore there is secrecy. Nobody talks about it openly though there is tremendous curiosity, especially during the adolescence and youth. Secrecy leads to ignorance. They turn to their friends for information, who are equally ignorant and may provide misinformation. Since they cannot dare to ask their parents or teachers, they try it through pornographic literature. They expect quacks to solve their problems. Myths and misconceptions gathered are propagated from generations to generations.Affects Many myths are responsible for Fear, Anxiety, depression Guilt feeling, Poor self esteemOver expectationsSexual dysfunctionsMarital disharmony, conflict, divorceSuicideVictimization by quacks Some of the common myths are mentioned below in italics, followed by their scientific explanations:PenisMen can will an erectionNo. Erection is controlled by parasympathetic part of autonomic nervous system. Like salivation and perspiration, erection is a situational reflex. Therefore sensate focus is the most important factor for getting erection.To satisfy a woman, the man needs a long, thick and straight penis.No. Like the shape of the nose, each penis is different. As a long and big nose does not improve the smell of a rose, A long and thick penis is not required for the pleasure of the self or of the woman. Penis is never straight like the railway signal. In some, it has a shape of banana. Vagina accommodates any shape of penis. Since the length of the vagina is 3.5 inches and only outer one inch is sensitive to touch, any erect penis over 1 inch in length is sufficient.Testes Both the testes should be at the same level. Using tight underwear (Langot) prevents hydrocele and hernia.No, the left testis is usually at a lower level, for some anatomical reasons. If the testes are brought near the body by using tight underwear, their temperature rises and adversely affects the formation of sperms.Semen is a precious fluid.No, semen is like any other secretion to be thrown out of body. Semen is a mixture of secretions from prostate, seminal vesicles and bulbo-urethral glands plus sperms. Semen provides nutrition, helps motility and acts as a vehicle for the transport of sperms.Losing Dhaat in sleep or passing it in urine is a disease. Passing semen Dhaat in sleep is known as wet dreams or nocturnal emission. This is a normal event and a sign of puberty, the beginning of adolescence. It also proves that the reproductive system has started functioning. When the reproductive glands are full with secretions and person gets a sensuous dream, like escape of steam from the cooker, he ejaculates in sleep. This does not cause weakness or loss of vitality.The sphincter of urinary bladder closes during ejaculation. Therefore, semen cannot be mixed with urine. If prostration secretion accumulates in the urethra at night the individual will see milky white secretion of prostate while passing urine next morning. This is physiological. Passing phosphates in the urine is sometimes mistaken for semen. Losing semen through masturbation does not cause not any harm. Masturbation is not a bad habit. It cannot be overdone, since it is controlled by autonomic nervous system. The frequency of masturbation depends upon the hormone, testosterone and the secretions of reproductive glands. Those who have never masturbated since puberty, the ejaculatory reflex do not work after the marriage and hence the man cannot father a child.Masturbation does not cause pimples, weakness, impotence or any other disease. It does not bend the penis. Masturbation or nocturnal emissions are inversely proportional to each other.Not only young people but married persons, old people and the females also masturbate.It is not the loss of semen, masturbation or wet dreams that harm a person, but the anxiety and fear about it harm him. VAGINA.Presence of hymen is the surest test for virginity.No. There is no surest test for proving virginity. A woman may or may not bleed from her vagina at the first intercourse after marriage; even then she could be a virgin. Sports, cycling, horse riding or exercise can be responsible for the tear of the hymen. Hymen, if lax, can remain intact even after the child birth.Hymen is a vestigial structure formed at the junction of external and internal genitals during the embryonic life. It may or may not be present at birth. Character is in the mind and not in the genitals. Secondly, there is a double standard for virginity. Man takes pride in mentioning about the number of women with whom he had sex. Such man deserves no right to ask his wife about premarital sex.Vagina is a sensuous organ. Woman gets orgasm by stimulation of vagina.No. Like esophagus, vagina is developed from endoderm and therefore there is no sensation in vaginal barrel. Vaginal orgasm is a myth. Orgasm in a woman is always clitoral in origin. Clitoris is the homologous organ of penis. The area of vestibule and the outer inch of vagina is developed from ectoderm and hence it is erotically sensitive to touch; only next to clitoris.There is no homologous organ like vagina in man. If men were to have vagina the site of opening would be on the median scrotal raphe, one inch in front of the anus. Vagina is considered as the organ of honor and character. However, physiologically, vagina is a passage for the menstrual flow and baby to outside it is the side of sensuous pleasure for male, where gets maximum erection that terminates in ejaculation for fertility. MENSTRUATION Bad blood is passed out menstruation. Woman becomes impure during menstruation. Menarche (beginning of menstruation) is the first indication that girl has been promoted to become a woman, Every month the inner lining of the wall of the uterus becomes thickened and engorged with blood vessels and mucus glands, ready to nourish the fertilized egg. If the egg is not fertilized, this lining breaks down and is discharged with little blood and mucus through the vagina. This is menstruation. Neither the blood is bad, nor does the woman become impure. A woman can lead a normal and usual life during menstruation. Breasts Small breasts produce less of milk. Their size can be augmented by hormones/ massage. The size of breast has no relation to the production of milk in it.. Even a small breast can produce enough of milk breast- feeding. The size of the breast depends upon the amount of fatty tissue in it.Massage or hormones do not help in increasing the size. For aesthetic reasons, silicon gel implant or fatty tissues injection can help in augmentation of the size of breast. The simplest way is to use a padded bra.Having unequal size of the breast is a normal variation and does not need any treatment. INTERCOURSE The first wedding night is the most sensuous and the most memorable experience. Sex with a virgin woman gives maximum pleasure.No.A virgin woman being a novice may not be able to enjoy sex herself. In fact, love, caring and sharing with the partner is needed. She inhibitions, feel relaxed, establish a loving relationship with partner, engage in foreplay, and then only she will be able to enjoy herself and herself and give the pleasure of sex to him. On the first wedding night, though the expectations are high, both being ignorant about the genitals, having pressure of performance and fear of failure, the intercourse may be unsuccessful and both may disappointed.My friend says that he performs three times every night and each times he lasts for half an hour.He is exaggerating his performance. Researchers have proved that the duration of intercourse from the time of penetration to the time of ejaculation is 1 to 3 minutes. The frequency becomes less and less. However, frequency and duration varies from person to person. For fertility it should be daily or on alternate days especially during the sexual performance is controlled by autonomic nervous system. Man cannot will an erection. If he tries to imitate his friend, nature does not cooperate and he may not be able to get an erection as he desires.Simultaneous orgasm of the two is necessary for pregnancy.No, It is not possible, since every individual has /her own speed. However, women should have orgasm prior to man’s, either by manual stimulation of clitoris or by ‘woman-on-top position. Simultaneous orgasm is not necessary for the pregnancy to occur. A woman is capable of becoming pregnant even without having an orgasm.Sex during menstruation and oral-genital sex are harmful There is no medical evidence to prove that sex during menstruation or oral genitals sex is harmful, provided:1. The mouth and the genitals are cleaned before the act He/she has no dislike or objection to it.Intercourse causes weakness or objection to it.Intercourse causes weakness. Sex tonic improves the performance During the intercourse, the tension in the muscles rises. This is followed by fatigue which recovers in a day. There is nothing like ‘sex tonic’. Masters and Johnson used to say “Sound health, interested and interesting partner is the best sex tonic.Hysterectomy/ menopause is the end of sex life.No. individuals can indulge in sex till the end of life. ‘Use it, or lose it’ is the rule applicable to it. Those who have regular sexual outlet do not find any discomfort or pain during sex.HomosexualityHomosexuality is abnormal. A Homosexual can be identified.A homosexual is normal in every respect except that his sexual orientation is different. There are 4% of male and 2 to 3% of female homosexuals in any society. No definite cause has been found. A homosexual cannot be identified by his look or behavior.Infertility Woman is always responsible for infertility in the couple.In 40 to 50 percent of the couples, man is responsible for infertility.The female is responsible for giving birth to male or female child Male is responsible. It depends on the sex chromosome that fertilizes the egg, If the sperm containing Y sex chromosome fertilize the egg, it will be a boy, and if X sex chromosome fertilizes. It will be a girl.However, this too is not under his control, Whatever the outcome is one has to accept and love the child.Family Planning Pill causes cancer, Coper T leads to profuse menstruation, Papaya causes abortion, and vasectomy leads to impotence.All these are myths. Pill contains minimum amount of hormones. Numerous studies done on the usage of pill show that it does not causes cancer. Copper T may cause little excessive menstrual flow in some cases that too initially only. Papaya or any other food stuff or hormone injection does not cause abortion. Manual vacuum aspiration is the only way (up to 6 weeks) for the termination of pregnancy. Vasectomy does not interfere with person sexual desire, erection or sexual performance. The quantity of semen also remains as before only that it does not contain sperms.STI/ HIV/ AIDSA Person using public toilet, using cloths of the patient or touching him, is liable to get STI or HIV infection NO. These diseases are transmitted through sexual contact. The germs of these diseases do not thrive in open. Using the public toilet, using the clothes or utensils used by the patient cannot transmit these diseases.Miscellaneous female has ten times the sex desire than that in the maleNo. the hormone responsible for the sex desire testosterone is more abundant in the male than in the female. She is interest in love, caring and sharing than in intercourse. For that reason there are no male sex workers to service the females. Hysteria is the female is due to sex starvation. Marriage is the solution Hysteria is a psychological disorder sex starvation does not cause any disease. Marriage in such a mental state complicates the problem.Blood group of both should be matched before marriage.Blood groups need not be matched, but the compatibility of Rh factor in blood of both should be examined. If the female is Rh negative and male is Rh negative, then the second child of this couple may get jaundice and may not survive. To avoid this Rh negative female is given Anti D immunoglobulin injection immediately after first delivery (or after abortion).Posted by Dr. Ramesh Maheshwari, Wnho Clinic, 2014 sadashiv peth, Tilak road, Pune. Free to call for further information.
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