Galvanic current is used to create two significant reaction in esthetics : Chemical (Disincrustation)and ionic (Iontophoresis) DEFINATION- IONTOPHORESIS- GK=(Introduction of ions)is defined as the introduction , by means of an electric current , of soluble salts in to body tissues for therapeutic purposes. Skin type- -All skin types depending on substance used -Dry dehydrated skin -Dull sallow skin PROCEDURE— 1.Ensure machine is in good working order and on a stable trolley. 2. Remove jewelry from patient and self. 3. Cleanse patients face and neck thoroughly and check for contraindication. 4. Explain routine procedure to patient and reassure about any sensation i.e. pricking metallic taste , and slight warmth. 5. Place inactive electrode in patient s hand. 6. Remove substance in to bowl and with help of brush apply on patient's face and work round with one active roller electrode. 7. Place active electrode on patients forehead and another at base of neck. Check intensity dial at zero. Make sure that the polarity switch is at negative. Switch on the machine and turn up the intensity dial gradually until patient feels pricking sensation. 8. For 2 mins, taking care not to lose contact with the skin and avoid over stimulation of an area. 9. After 2 mins switch off machine , turn intensity dial to zero and remove the active electrode from the skin. 10. Turn polarity switch to positive. Place the active electrode on electrode on forehead and the base of neck, and switch on machine and turn up the intensity dial as before. Move the electrode for another 8 mins, slowly over the face and neck. 11. Switch off the machine, turn off intensity and remove electrodes. 12. Tone and moisturize face , or blot and continue with other treatments. 13. No make up is to be worn for at least 2 hours or if possible for the rest of the day. If possible, for the rest of the day. If make up is necessary, then apply medicated foundation and then the rest of the make-up. 14. Positive polarity is for penetration. Negative polarity is for opening up. So in cases of acne, boils , pustules , give 8 min negative.For pigmentation , dryness , whitening, fairness give 8 mins positive. DURATION— 2-3 mins( negative) and 6-8 mins(positive) INTENSITY— 2-3 miliamps BENEFITS- CHEMICAL EFFECTS – When the active electrode becomes +ve it attracts the –ve chloride ion. This produces a chemical reaction whereby chloride ions react with hydrogen ions to form hydrochloric acid.This hydrochloric acid restores the acid mantle. PHYSICAL EFFECTS— -Restores acid mantle. -Contracts skin tissue -Tightness pores . -Reduces vascularity. -Overall refining of skin condition due to its astringent effect. EFFECTS OF IONTOPHORESIS- 1. Beneficial substances for correcting different skin problems are penetrated into skin. 2. Opens the pores. 3. Stimulates circulations. 4. Generally improves texture and tone of skin. IONTOPHORESIS IS SUITABLE FOR- 1. All skin types depending on substance used. 2. The contents of substances are specialized which are beneficial , pure, water soluble for various skin problems. EXAMPLES: 1. Retinoic acid Acne (0.05%) Acne scars Pigmentation Fine lines Dark circles 2. Glycolic acid(6%, 12%) Pigmentation Fine lines Oily skin 3. Kojic acid (2%) and VIT-C for periorbital melanosis. 4. Aloe + Vit E for dry and dehydrated skin Seaweed jelly Positive galvanic gel Aloe vera gel Contraindication 1 Hyper- sensitive skin, loss of skin Sensation 2 Excessive filling, metal pins, plates, coils 3 Epileptics 4 Diabetes 5 Patient with pacemaker 6 Pregnancy 7 Skin diseases, infection, sepsis 8 Cuts, abrasion, inflammations 9 Highly strung and nervous client 10 Highly Vascular skin 11 Defective circulation PRECAUTION FOR IONTOPHORESIS 1 Check for Contraindications 2 Ensure machine is in good working order 3 Remove jewellary from clients and self 4 Explain to client about sensations which she will be feeling 5 Place correct Electrode on client’s face 6 Select correct polarity 7 Time treatment correctly 8 Do not remove electrode from skin when machine is still on 9 Avoid over stimulation of any one part of the skin 10 Try not to touch patient during treatment as the currently may be earthed by you . 11 Ensure machine is placed is safely on a stable trolley. Disincrustations It is used to facilitate deep pore cleansing , to emulsify sebum, remove surface oiliness, Blockage and help to regulate secreation. During this process galvanic current is used to create a chemical reaction that emulsifies or liquefies sebum and debris. When conducting disincrustation , the client holds the positive electrode, the positive polarity. The therapist uses the negative electrode (negative polarity) on the client’s skin surface. This creates a chemical reaction that transforms the sebum present in the skin into soap. When the electrical current interacts with the salts in the skin, it creates the chemical sodium hydroxide i.e this soapy substance helps dissolve excess oil, clogged pores, comedones and other debris on the skin, while softening it at same time Skin type Oily skin Acne Prone skin Combination skin Post-acne scars Products- Saline solution Disincrustation lotion Negative galvanic gel Duration- 6-8 min (Negative ) and 2-3 min (positive) Intensity-2-3 miliamps Procedure- Ensure that machine is in good working order and placed on a stable trolley. Remove all jewellery from client and self Cleanse clients face and neck thoroughly and check for any contraindications. Explain and reassure client of routine procedure, sensation(prickling and warmth ) she may feel Carry out the thermal and skin sensitivity test on face. -apply some petroleum jelly around the eyes -apply the product with the help of mask brush -give the client the bar electrode (with a damp cotton tissue wrapped around it) to hold . this is anode. Make contact with the negative roller/cathode(covered with damp cotton) on the skin and turn up the currently gradually until the client feels a tingling sensation. The movement should start from the chin and move towards the sides in overlapping strokes.Use slow, even, rhythmic movements all over the face. Continue for 6-8 min Lower the intensity and switch off the machine Remove the product and proceed with extractions. Reverse polarity for 2 min and then switch off the machine. Benefits Chemical effects- When sodium chloride is dissolved in water, it produces sodium ions and chlorides ions. The active electrode which is – vely charged , attracts +vely sodium ions. This produces a chemical reaction forming NAoH, which is an alkaline that destroys the acid mantle on the face and emulsifies the sebum on the skin surface. It also neutralizes the sebum. Physical effects- Destroy acid mantle. Soften skin tissue. Open pores. Emulsifies sebum and therefore aiding flow and drawing out impurities Increase vascularity i.e produces erythema y the stimulation action of current. Therefore increases blood circulation, which nourishes the tissues and improves lymph drainage, which aids removal of waste products. Overall improvements of skin condition due to its deep cleansing action.